Toyota has reclaimed the title of world's largest car maker in 2012 after outselling General Motors.
Toyota sold 9.75 million vehicles in 2012, a 23% gain in global sales that allowed it to reclaim the top spot from GM and fend off third-placed Volkswagen.
GM sold 9.29 million vehicles in 2012, while the German auto giant sold 9.07 million.
Nissan. and Honda also logged record sales as Japan's motor industry gave yet another sign of its resurgence from the supply-chain disruptions of the previous year caused by the earthquake in Japan and flooding in Thailand.
Nissan sold a record 4.94 million vehicles, up 5.8% from a year earlier, while Honda sold 3.82 million, a rise of 19%.
Toyota, whose sales volume includes minicar maker Daihatsu and truck maker Hino bounced back from those production problems to sell more vehicles than ever before on demand for its Prius family of hybrid cars, sedans such as the Camry and SUVs such such as the Lexus RX 350.
Toyota first became no 1 in 2008 and held the position for three years.
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